As part of the study, 42 South Tyrolean gasification plants were mapped that use around 50,000 tons of wood biomass every year and generate over 50 GWh of electricity, 100 GWh of heat and 1,300 tons of char. An important and constantly growing sector. The char produced by the plants is almost exclusively disposed of as non-hazardous special waste. The physical, chemical and biological analyzes made it clear that none of the sampled char showed phytotoxic effects, but at the same time none of them complied with the regulations governing their use as soil improvers in agriculture. In particular, the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrogen (PAH) and some heavy metals (Cd, Cr e Zn) exceeded the standard limit values and prevented agricultural use. This result had significant consequences for the development of the project and the potential upgrading of the current wood gasification production chain in South Tyrol. In order to carry out the field tests, the consortium was forced to buy biochar outside the province. The experts came to the following conclusion: In order to convert the current gasification plants into polygenerative systems that generate not only electrical and thermal energy but also biochar that can be used as a soil improver, the main process parameters (e.g. the temperature profiles in the reactor) must therefore be changed or systems for post-treatment of the char have to be used in order to reduce the PAH content. Heavy metals present in char, on the other hand, appear to come from mechanical parts used to move solid materials in the plant, or from pre-treatment of wood biomass such as chipping or pelleting. In this regard, it seems easier to find a technical solution. The economic analysis of an intervention to optimize the system, with which a high-quality char suitable for use in agriculture can be produced, has shown that a maximum budget of between 23,000 and 97,000 euros is available for these investments, depending on the sales price of the biochar. The sums mentioned above are a guideline for the profitability that an intervention to optimize the current systems would have to have to be attractive on the market. The investigations into the possibility of extracting biologically active molecules from wood biomass have led to particularly interesting conclusions. Regardless of the extraction method (Soxhlet or supercritical carbon dioxide), the extracts have shown a good antimicrobial effect and could be used as a valuable alternative to the artificial preservers that are used today in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. This possibility represents an important element of the potential for upgrading the wood-energy production chain, which has not yet been extensively investigated, and which undoubtedly deserves more attention in the future. The use of biochar in agriculture has shown several beneficial effects in improving soil, including an increase in the availability of certain nutrients, particularly macronutrients such as potassium, magnesium and phosphorus, as well as the ability to increase soil pH, whit beneficial effects on viticulture on acidic soils. Overall, a higher productivity of the plants treated with Biochar was observed without any negative effects on the quality of the wines. The biochar tested under controlled experimental conditions did not show any significant effects on the nitrogen cycle in the grapevine; the uptake and allocation of nitrogen in the various organs remained unchanged. Biochar, on the other hand, has significantly changed the water storage capacity of the soil and produced a positive increase in the water available for the plants. This improved the tolerance to drought stress and reduced the negative physiological effects associated with the water shortage. This result is very interesting in terms of a policy of adaptation to climate change, which is characterized by an increase in dry spells and heat waves. The studies carried out with regard to the environmental effects of biochar and in particular the effects on greenhouse gas emissions and the accumulation of carbon in the soil have produced relevant results. Biochar caused a decrease in soil N2O emissions and a significant increase in CO2 emissions, although this was limited in time and not very pronounced, while it had no effects on CH4 emissions. The carbon balance in the soil was extremely positive, despite the stability of the applied biochar was not particularly high and could not be defined with certainty. All results were included in a life cycle analysis (LCA), the aim of which was to evaluate the environmental impact of the South Tyrolean wood gasification production chain, as well as its comparison with an upgraded production chain, which also includes the extraction of high-quality compounds from biomass, improved gasification technologies and the use of biochar in agriculture. The LCA has shown that the current production chain is environmentally friendly and, compared to the counterfactual energy production chains, leads to a saving of fossil energy and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Another advantage, albeit to a lesser extent, is the use of biochar in agriculture. The extraction of biomolecules from the wood biomass is associated with energy costs and considerable emissions, which are comparable to those of the production and transport of wood biomass (round wood, wood chips and pellets) from the production site to the gasification plants. Therefore, the extraction of biomolecules would have a negative impact on the overall environmental balance of the production chain. It should be emphasized, however, that the analysis did not take into account the environmental costs of producing synthetic molecules. In addition, it should be taken into account that the current South Tyrolean char production, if it were suitable for use in agriculture, would only be sufficient to improve 50 hectares of agricultural land per year. In order to support the broader use of biochar in agriculture, it would therefore be necessary to import biochar or to increase the number of gasification plants, which would lead to an increase in the economic and environmental costs of the production chain. On the other hand, the proposed technologies for producing high-quality biochar would produce almost twice as much energy with the same amount of biochar produced, which would require significantly larger amounts of biomass for gasification. In view of the positive agronomic and environment-specific effects of biochar, which became visible in the WOOD-UP project, a clear recommendation is made to the funding policy to support those research and development efforts that are oriented towards the planning of polygenerative plants and in addition to electrical and heat energy also generate high quality biochar. A balanced relationship between these gasification products should take into account the positive effects that the use of biochar could have on the sustainability of the South Tyrolean agricultural system, which is increasingly sensitive to the environmental effects of agriculture.